Exercise

BRAND NEW TBS DAILY DIGEST

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Hey guys, how have you been?

In the words of Aaron Lewis “It’s been a While..”

Well, it has on the TBS Blog anyway…

If you’ve been on the TotalBodySculpture Facebook page or over at our Website, you will have seen all the things we’ve been up to, including my nomination as one of the Top 10 Personal Trainers in the World, which led to me being flown out to Barcelona to showcase my skills and knowledge!

A brilliant experience and I can say I met some incredible people during my trip, as well as sampled the great food (and red wine) of Bar-ce-looonaaa -sang in my very best Freddie Mercury voice!!

However, i’ve also managed to throw up some new articles on kettlebells, sand bags and loads of other content!

The best way to stay in the loop is to join a couple of 1000 others and join the TBS Newsletter. In fact, joining now will ensure you get on the list for my brand new daily email, which will be going out on Monday, with access only available until the end of the year, before going to an invitation only newsletter. So head over to the website at http://www.totalbodysculpture.com and ht the sign up page whilst you still can!

Pressing Ahead: Military Style

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Become ALPHA!

The press is another of those exercises that can be used to develop strength and musculature in a variety of muscles. Along with the bench press, the shoulder press should be part of any training programme geared towards increasing strength in the upper body.
The type of form adopted for the shoulder press can be varied with the use of both barbell and dumbbells each bringing their own strengths and weaknesses. Here we will concentrate on the standing shoulder press, or ‘Military Shoulder Press’, although I will also touch upon the alternatives later.Image

The military shoulder press is predominantly a shoulder exercise, hitting all 3 of the shoulder heads (the clue is in the name!) However when performed correctly, with optimal weight, the military press also hits the traps, triceps and ‘core’ muscles.
When teaching the correct form of the military press, my preference is to use an empty Olympic barbell. If an Olympic barbell provides too much resistance, simply use a broom handle or similar lightweight pole until the correct form is mastered. Using too much weight at an early stage can cause technique errors to manifest themselves and become habitual, which if left uncorrected, could cause less than optimal performance and injuries to occur.

The steps below will allow you to master this multi-muscle strength builder in no time! Ideally the bar should be set up at around chest height, similar to if we were using the bar for squats, however, this is not always possible. A training partner or spotter that can aid you in getting the bar in to position can be invaluable, especially when performing working sets.

1. The first step in the military press is the grip. Simple human mechanics dictate how and where to grip the barbell. Grasp the bar just outside shoulder width so that the forearms are in a vertical position. This allows the bones of the forearm to be placed directly below the bar, on the heel of the hand. Positioning the bar here is optimal for the early stages of the ‘drive’.Image

2. The position of the elbows is an important point to consider for the balance of the shoulder press. Elbows under or behind the bar can cause the barbell to be driven away from the body, making a less than efficient and therefore less than optimal movement. This can also place unwanted stress on the shallow shoulder joint. Ideally, we want the bar to be resting on the front heads of the shoulders, with elbows slightly ahead of the bar. This will allow the bar to be driven directly upwards to a point over the crown of the head, in-line with both the shoulder blades and the middle of the feet. Yes, this means the bar will move towards your forehead, but as you will see below, we move the forehead out of the way first!

3. The military press requires a firm base from which to drive from. Using a stance not too dissimilar to one that would be used to squat, we are able to provide a stable base of the ‘kinetic chain’. The kinetic chain is the various muscles and bones involved in the production and transmission of force between the base of support and the load being moved, in this case starting at the ground and ending at the bar. This is one reason why it is important that the correct footwear is used when performing barbell movements such as the press, deadlift and squat. The standing military press requires the longest kinetic chain of the human body and is therefore a great way of building stability whilst under load.

4. Once you have established a firm base, it is time to stabilise the upper back by lifting the upper chest or “showing off your boobs”. Imagine you are pushing your chest up towards your chin by contracting the upper erector spinae. This movement along with the correct positioning of the elbows lays the foundation of the pressing movement.

Image5. When you are ready, take a deep breath*, hold it and press the bar overhead until the elbows are locked out. The bar should finish positioned over the middle of the foot, the shoulder blades and behind the forehead, not infront. Once the bar is locked out at the top, shrug the shoulders up to support the bar, The arms and traps working together will support the bar overhead, particularly when using heavy weights. Locking the elbows out and shrugging the traps up with the bar directly over the ears, produces a stable position for the shoulder girdle muscles and prevents shoulder impingement.

6. In 1972 the standing shoulder press was dropped from Olympic weightlifting competition. One reason for this was the bench press was growing as a preferred choice as a pressing movement (a movement with a very short kinetic chain ironically). Another reason is the amount of ‘lean’ permitted by competition judges was just too varied. However, as we’re not under competition rules, ‘learning to lean’ is key to not driving the bar into our nose and forehead. As the bar is starting a few inches ahead of where it will finish, some lateral movement is needed as the bar moves vertically. Pushing the hips forward whilst the bar is resting on the shoulders helps us to achieve this. The knees and lower back must remain locked out during this movement, as the hips are the only part of the body required here. This movement can and should be practiced without the bar. Practice isometric contractions the abdominals and quadriceps to stabilise the lower back and knees whilst not using the bar. This can be invaluable when it comes to incorporating this technique to a weighted barbell.Image

7. The Military Shoulder Press does not use any momentum from the legs to assist the upper body in pressing the bar. Towards the end of a set, you may want to incorporate the ‘push press’ as the shoulders begin to fatigue. It is performed almost identically as the military press, with the addition of a small, explosive ‘push’ with the legs. This produces momentum from leg drive, which will allow you to push past the early sticking point brought on by fatigue. See Tip Box on how to incorporate this movement into the end of your sets.

8. Once you have practiced this motion and feel comfortable with its use whilst under a weighted bar, it is time to incorporate each element together. Take the bar out of the rack with the correct grip, elbows in the correct position, chest up and hips forward. Do not begin to drive the bar upwards before you have pushed the hips forward. Doing so will cause you to push the bar forward slightly to avoid hitting the face, instead of straight up which is what is desired. Once the barImage has passed the forehead, move the hips back and the torso forward to get under the bar, don’t move the bar backwards. The forward movement of the torso aids in the lockout of the elbows and traps, bringing the upper arm and forearm into alignment.

TOP TIP

Utilising the push press is a great way to finish of the set, especially as fatigue has kicked in. From the standard starting position (A), bend the knees slightly whilst maintaining your stable ‘core’ (B). Drive the hips upwards explosively. With this momentum, drive the bar upwards and continue to lockout as with the military press (C).

SQUAT 101: Step-by-step Guide to Perfecting Your Squat

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Along with the deadlift, the squat is one of the best compound exercises available to build strength and mass in an athlete. Unfortunately, just like the deadlift, it is an exercise performed incorrectly by so many gym goers.
I have seen personal trainers and fitness instructors not only perform the squat incorrectly, but also teach incorrect form to clients and gym members. This is both frustrating and dangerous.

The squat engages the core in much the same way as the deadlift does. The biomechanics of the body make the squat a very natural movement to perform.baby squat In fact many of us have the perfect form from a very, very young age.

The perfect squat balances the forces around the knee and hips. When you ask someone what muscles they are working, almost everyone will focus on the obvious leg muscles, particularly the quadriceps.
Of course the quads are stimulated during the squat, however on top of that the muscles of the lower back, the abdominals, the ribcage muscles (costals), upper back muscles such as the traps and rhomboids, glutes, hamstrings and even the shoulders and arms all take on some of the load when performing the squat.

The squat really is the only exercise available that allows direct training and progressive improvement of ‘hip-drive’. Hip-Drive is a complex movement that strengthens the muscles that make up the ‘Posterior Chain’, which include the muscles we mentioned above.

To perfect the correct technique of the squat, the movement should be introduced ‘without’ the bar. Problems that develop with technique tend to become exagerrated once the bar is introduced. For example, drop down into the squat position and with hands pressed together in a clap, elbows pushed into the inside the knees, push the knees out over the feet. This should form ther basis of your body position during the squat.

Below are 10 Steps to a Heavenly Squat!

THE SQUAT SET UP
1. Chest Up – Pushing the chest out & pulling the shoulders back will automatically create the platform for the bar. You can also tighten your upper-back better as a result.

2. Focal Point – By focusing upwards too much, the neck can become hyperextended, taking the spine out of neutral alignment. Looking upwards also inhibits the hips when driving from the bottom of the squat, leaving you weaker at the position where you need to be at your strongest. Focus on a point roughly 8-10 feet in front of you on the ground, not at the feet.

3. Bar Position – This is very much down to the individual & practice. Ideally, the bar needs to be low, below the bone at the top of your shoulder-blades and at the base of your traps – NOT ON YOUR SPINE! If the bar is too high, the back angle is increased vertically to allow the correct hip involvement.

4. Grip Width – A narrow grip makes it easier to tighten your upper-back, however this also comes down to shoulder flexibility too. I’ve trained plenty of people that just haven’t had the flexibility in the shoulder joint to go narrow. As long as long as the other areas are locked in, a wide grip is fine.
Wrist alignment – The correct grip keeps the hand (incl thumbs) above the bar and all of the weight of the bar on the back.

5. Tight Upper-back – Bring your shoulder-blades together. The elbows are lifted, causing the rear delts to contract. This creates a shelf in which the bar sits. Never should the bar be sitting on the top of the spine!

6. Foot Stance – Heels are shoulder-width apart, with feet angled outwards at around 35 degrees.

LOWERING THE BAR
7. Maintain Body Position – Taking a deep breath, which will help support the lower back, lower the hips, maintaining the arm, chest and neck angle.
The knees should train outwards over the feet, at the same angle. Don’t allow the knees to buckle inwards, this reduces the amount of quads available for the movement & points to weakness in the hamstrings.

8. Go Deep! – If the hips don’t go below the knee joint, it’s only a partial squat. If you can’t go deep, the weight is too heavy. Contrary to the thought that deep squats place extra stress on the knees & hips, it is partial squats that place higher tension on the knee joints. This is because you’re placing a shearing force on the knee, using more of the quads & not the stronger muscles of the posterior chain. If you walk away from a squat session with exhausted quads & your hamstrings and glutes haven’t done any work, your squat technique sucks!

RAISING THE BAR
9. The Bounce – People believe that the bounce at the bottom of the squat places stress on the knees. This is true. But only if the squat is not performed correctly! The bounce at the bottom causes lengthening of the hamstrings and adductors, causing a ‘stretch reflex’. The ‘Stretch Reflex’ causes the contraction of the hamstrings and glutes to be enhanced, which aids the hip drive. Obviously this bounce is controlled. Don’t just let gravity take the bar down & then try to fire it back up.

10. Maintain Body Position – As we mentioned in Step 7, push the knees outwards as you squat upwards. Lift with the hips, whilst maintaining the neutral alignment of the neck, chest up. Squeeze the glutes as you drive up. This will help drive up the bar, whilst also helping to protect the lower back.

If you have never squatted before, seek the instruction of a proper qualified Strength & Conditioning Coach.

squat-racking

Many personal trainers & fitness instructors out there are not suitably qualified to teach the art of the squat & as I said earlier, if bad habits are formed early, they will only be exasperated when the ba

r is heavier. It makes me wince when I see someone under a bar squatting & it is what can only be described as a full leg press, followed by a ‘Good Morning Lift’.

Of course there are further tips which will help someone further develop their squat, such as the Pad Test, Hip Pick Ups & Upper Back Bar Drive, but just like building a house, it’s important to build a solid foundation before you start building the patio & extension!

 

Are You Short-Changing Your Growth: 5 Lifestyle Changes to Better Results

Many people go toIMAG0573 the gym for vanity reasons. It’s an undeniable fact. Lots of men & women want to “Look Good Naked”. There’s nothing wrong with that, it gives people confidence, better self esteem and many other things. However, many people also go to the gym for other reasons, such as the challenge of Personal Bests, physical prowess etc. It doesn’t matter what your reasons are. But what if I told you that despite all your best efforts in the gym, you may be short-changing the results you could get? What if i told you the foods you’re eating, the deodorant you’re using, the fitness regime you’re following is minimising your muscle gains and/or increasing your bodyfat? Would you sit up & take notice?

I’ve put together 5 common factors that could be limiting your progress in the gym!

Well, now I have your attention read on…

1. Too Much Cardio/Not Enough Calories
The subject of Metabolic Damage has moved into the spotlight recently, particularly after a video blog on the subject by Dr. Layne Norton & more recently a Facebook Post by former NFL Footballer-turned Fitness Model Joe Donnelly. Some trainers & coaches have been aware of MD of quite some time & the havoc it can wreck on a person (I say some, because some trainers are actually guilty of causing it!)
If you are someone that could be labelled a ‘Cardio King/Queen’ and eat a particularly small amount of calories, chances are, you’re suffering from MD.
Large amounts of aerobic training can increase oxidative and adrenal stress on the body which can result in an increase in bodyfat.
I’m sure there are many trainers out there that have come across people that say “I do hours of cardio and my diet is very clean, yet I just don’t seem to be able to shift this fat”. Repairing someones metabolism can take time, but reducing the amount of cardio, particularly steady-state cardio, in favour of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & weight training are steps in the right direction. If any of the above sounds familiar, get in touch with a good nutritionist or trainer!

2. Inadequate Sleep.
Adequate sleep promotes recovery by increased growth hormone, DHEA and testosterone. These are important for body composition and our sex hormones. Sleep is also vital in decreasing insulin and cortisol with the end result being less mid section fat and insulin resistance. The average person only gets in around 6 hours of sleep a night, 2 hours less than the recommended 8 hours. Over a week that’s a deficit of 14 hours, over a month, 56 hours!
Late nights & early mornings are one of the reasons some people don’t get enough sleep, however another reason is some people take time to settle once they have retired for the evening, lying in bed for prolonged periods before finally dosing off. This can be down to many factors such as stress or external factors such as noise & light. If you are the kind of person that sits in bed watching TV, this can have adverse effects on your sleeping patterns. Personally, my bedroom is like a cave at night. No TV, no laptops, nothing that disrupts the sleeping pattern. This gives the brain the signal that i’m in this room for one reason & one reason only, to sleep!

3.Estrogenic Effects of Cosmetics
Parabens are chemical preservatives used to fight bacteria & fungus in cosmetics such as shampoos, moisturisers, shaving gels, cleansing gels, personal lubricants (oooo!!), topical pharmaceuticals and toothpaste. They are extremely cheap to produce and are widely used. Unfortunately, they have also been linked to an increase in levels of estrogen within the body, which is a known factor in the development of cancer. Researchers have found parabens in breast tumours and believe there is a relationship between parabens and tumours. In the July 2002 issue of the Archives of Toxicology, Dr. S. Oishi of the Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health reported that exposure of newborn male mammals to butylparaben “adversely affects the secretion of testosterone and the function of the male reproductive system.” Although the research is still in its early stages, may be you should check out the products you are using, especially as the skin & hair are the 1st & 2nd largest organs of the body and are particularly absorbent of products placed on them. Sure, some cosmetics are a little more expensive, but if i told you that the cheaper protein powder your using may be increasing your estrogen levels, would you choose a more expensive alternative?

4. Soy – Not the Superfood you thought it was.
Following on from Parabens & their effects on estrogen is Soy. Soy is a grain which the isn’t digested properly and can often lead to damage of the intestinal lining. Soy is also one of the most sprayed crops produced, leading to an increase of the toxic load on the body, which in turn can promotes the storage of body fat. Soy also contains goitragens which lead to hypothyroidism, disrupts brain function (soy is full of manganese which leads to neurotoxicity), increases the risk of breast cancer (estrogenic stimulation can lead to breast cancer, so having a load of ‘healthy’ soy in your diet will definitely cause estrogenic stimulation) and decreases testosterone levels (high isoflavonoid intake result in deregulated sexual hormones). Soy can also inhibit the absorption of important macro-minerals such as calcium and trace minerals such as zinc due to its high content of phytates.

5. From Soy to Zinc
As mentioned above, Soy can effect the levels of absorption of important trace minerals such as zinc. Zinc deficiency is one of the most common and most serious of mineral deficiencies and is prevalent amongst the majority of people. It is so common in fact that World Renowned Strength Coach Charles Poliquin actually assumes all of his athletes are zinc deficient until they can prove otherwise. Zinc is involved in over 300 enzymatic and hormonal functions within the body. Combine this with the fact that low levels of zinc can slow muscle growth, decrease immune functionality, reduce testosterone levels, effect appetite, decrease sperm count and cause problematic skin, it’s quickly apparent that zinc levels are important. I carry out a Zinc Taste Test of all my training clients and recommend all of my online clients do the same.

The Testosterone Response: Get Anabolic Pt1 by Charles Poliquin

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Testosterone is the most potent muscle-building hormone and recent research shows that adequate levels are directly related to health and well being in men. Testosterone (T) is directly involved in muscle building and promotes the secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland—another essential anabolic hormone for tissue repair and fat burning.
Optimal T levels correlate with a lean body composition and low levels can lead to fat gain and muscle loss. Additionally, low T levels are associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, elevated cancer risk, particularly prostate, not to mention a low sex drive, fatigue, decreased bone density, depression, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Aging, particularly beyond 40 years is associated with a one to three percent decline per year in T concentration, eventually resulting in a condition known as andropause.
Wondering what you can do to increase T levels?
First, understand the relationship between cortisol and testosterone. Second, follow my research-based tips for the greatest anabolic training response.
Testosterone is typically measured in relation to the catabolic, muscle degrading hormone, cortisol. The best T response from training allows you to increase strength and lean body mass by elevating protein synthesis and inhibiting the catabolic effects from high-intensity training. A higher testosterone-to-cortisol (T:C) ratio reflects your ability to maintain a higher intensity and volume of training as well as have a speedier and more effective recovery from workouts. Naturally, if you can train harder and longer, you’ll get better results and improved performance.
1)    Go Heavy and Use Large Muscle Lifts: Olympic Lifts, Squats, Deadlifts
It’s been well established that for the maximal T response, your best bet is to do a lot of squats, deadlifts, and Olympic lifts such as power cleans and snatches. A significant metabolic stress in the form of a high volume load, particularly in order to yield a favorable T:C ratio with heavy lifts (85-95 percent of the 1RM) and a moderate to high volume of training is also necessary.For example, a study of rugby players, found that training four exercises of 3 sets of 5 at 85 percent of the 1 RM resulted in a greater increase in T (by 13 percent) after the workout than three lighter loads equated for volume.2)    The Importance of Volume
Researchers suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume in eliciting T and C responses to training. It has been established through research that strict maximal strength and power protocols produce only modest changes in anabolic hormone levels, while hypertrophy protocols commonly yield a significant hormone response.

For example, even with heavy lifts such as a 90 percent 1 RM load, you won’t get a significant T response without a large volume of work. Research shows that with a relatively low volume of work, a hypertrophy-type (4 sets of 10 reps of squat at 75 percent of 1 RM) protocol is more effective at creating an anabolic environment than a strength-type (11 sets of 3 reps at 90 percent of 1 RM), or a power-type (8 sets of 6 reps of jump squats with no weight).

The hypertrophy protocol resulted in a significant increase in T, C, and sex hormone-binding globulin, indicating both a state of protein degradation and an adaptive process leading to increased protein synthesis. Workouts with a larger volume that incorporate specific strength and power lifts for variety would create the best anabolic response.

3)    What About Rest Periods?

While short rest periods with high-intensity training have been shown to create a potent anabolic environment by eliciting a strong GH and T response, recent research shows that longer rest periods may be more effective in triggering T release if you program properly. A new study compared the affect of rest period length on GH and T response. Participants performed four sets to failure of bench press and squat at 85 percent of 1RM with either 60, 90, or 120 seconds of rest between sets. Because participants were lifting to failure, training volume for the 90- and 120-second rest groups was about 15 percent greater than for the 60-second group because they were more rested.

T levels increased the most with the longest rest period of 120 seconds, most likely due to the higher training volume because participants were able to recover more completely. The 60-second group had the highest increase in GH, indicating the importance of using a variable training program that incorporates both short rest periods to stimulate GH for and longer rest periods to get the critical T response. The slightly longer rest allows for the use of heavier loads and greater recovery between lifts, resulting in a higher total volume for the best T release. Don’t ignore the value of T to counteract the muscle degradation of high-intensity training that elevates cortisol.

4)    The Individual Nature of Testosterone Response

The good news is that there is more than one training protocol for getting a strong T response and building muscle. Things begin to get complicated when we look at individual role of T in different trainees.

Two studies from New Zealand of rugby players support a variable training protocol for strength and muscle mass gains and the fact that T response is individualized. Both studies compared the same exercise protocols: four exercises using 4 sets of 10 at 70 percent of 1RM; 3 X 5 at 85 percent; 5 X 15 at 55 percent; or 3 X 5 at 40 percent.

Take note that not all of the study’s participants had optimal T responses to the same protocol: two had the largest T response to performing 3 X 5 at 40 percent—a surprisingly light load and low volume. The majority of the players had the greatest T response to 4 sets of 10 at 70 percent.

The takeaway point from this study is that individuals with a low T-response threshold may have a greater anabolic response to a low-load, explosive training protocol, such as 85-95 percent 1 RM Olympic lifts of power squats for 5 sets of 3. Alternately, for those that require a large volume of exercise to elicit a T response, a 5 X 15 at 55 percent protocol may be more appropriate.

5)    How Can I Get the Best T:C Ratio?
The second study from the New Zealand researchers used the same group of rugby players and tested the same four exercise protocols on T:C ratio. In fact, all four exercise schemes yielded decreases in C concentration. The program that produced the most favorable ratio was 3 sets of 5 at 85 percent of the 1RM (13 percent increase in T and 38 percent decrease in C), which supports the idea that heavy resistance with large muscle groups is key.

Very similar results are evident from other studies comparing strength, hypertrophy, and power. I’ll say it again, a high volume is important with a hypertrophy-type protocol that allows for variety in the training scheme, occasionally including strength and power exercises if desired.

6)    Use Complex Training to Manipulate the T:C Ratio in Your Favor
Add complex training with a strength-then-power protocol to trigger more T release and a better T:C ratio. A recent study found that using a strength-power squat protocol is more effective than a power-power, power-strength, or strength-strength combination training order. The strength-power order resulted in the greatest T response of 13 percent and a “trivial cortisol response.” The power-power bout yielded the least favorable ratio with a significant C response and the smallest T response of all. Researchers note that despite a relatively limited T increase, the strength-power protocol has the potential to enhance the anabolic environment for adaptation.

7)    Warm-up With Sprints for the Greatest Anabolic Response
Prime the muscles and the endocrine system with all-out sprints prior to resistance training to lift more weight and get a better T:C ratio. A recent study found that performing one lower- and one upper-body body cycle sprint (40 seconds long) prior to a box squat and bench throw workout resulted in a higher T response. Participants also had greater maximal lifts in the squat. Researchers point to the importance of using large muscle lower body sprints and lifts for the most anabolic milieu.

8)    Testosterone and Fish Oil: Omega-3s are Anabolic!
Take fish oil to build muscle and get an anabolic response. Recent research shows that fish oil supplementation enhances protein synthesis and decreases C levels. In one study participants increased lean mass and decreased body fat after taking fish oil for eight weeks and they did no exercise or resistance training. The lower C levels are likely the reason for the positive body composition improvements.

While fish oil hasn’t been found to actually raise T levels, zinc supplementation has. Research shows there is a significant relationship between low zinc levels and low T levels in men. Additionally, taking a zinc supplement has been shown to increase T response to high-intensity to cycling more than a placebo. Don’t leave muscle gain on the table—take zinc for the best T response.

9)    Take Branched-Chain Amino Acids for a Better T:C Ratio
If you haven’t added branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to your nutrition program, two recent studies should convince you to do so. A 2010 study found that taking BCAAs while resistance training results in significantly higher T levels with a lower creatine kinase and C response. This is significant because both strength gains and a decrease in protein degradation are more correlated with a better T:C ratio than total testosterone levels.

A second study compared taking 10 grams of protein that was 18 percent leucine with a similar drink that was 35 percent leucine. The higher leucine concentration resulted in greater anabolic protein signaling, which means less muscle breakdown from the degrading effects of C.

10)    Anabolic Signaling, T, and Wave-Like Training
Anabolic signaling relates to the process of how T interacts with hormone receptors, specifically androgen receptors (AR). Increasing the activity of ARs—or upregulating them—results in a greater anabolic response. Research shows that using wave-like training with varying programming schemes can upregulate ARs and elevate T levels.

A recent study used a 21-week total body resistance training program with men who performed seven exercises with varying loads and repetition/set schemes. Participants performed each of the following protocols for seven weeks: strength endurance, hypertrophy, and maximal strength. All participants significantly increased muscle size and 1RM strength, and had higher T levels following training sessions.

Researchers found that in individuals with the greatest T response, ARs were equally more upregulated. Plus, the magnitude of muscle growth correlated to greater T and AR upregulation, indicating the critical nature of T in creating an anabolic environment.

The Growth Hormone Response:  Get Anabolic Pt2

Reference #1

Crewther, B., Cook, C., Cardinale, M., Weatherby, R., Lowe, T. Two Emerging Concepts for Elite Athletes: The Short-Term Effects of Testosterone and Cortisol on the Neuromuscular System and the Dose-Response Training Role of these Endogenous Hormones. Sports Medicine. 2011. 41(2), 103-123.
References #2
McCauley, G., McBride, J., Cormie, P., Hudson, M., Nuzzo, J., Quidry, J., Triplett, N. Acute Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Hypertrophy, Strength and Power Type Resistance Exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009. 105(5), 695-704.
Fry, A., Kudrna, R., Gallagher, P., Moodie, N., Prewitt, M. Acute Endocrine Responses to Maximal Velocity Barbell squats with Three Different Loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. March 2011. 25(Suppl 91-92).
References #3
Rahman, R., Qaderi, M., Faraji, H., Boroujerdi, S. Effects of Very Short Rest Periods on Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise in Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(7), 1851-1859.
Vingren, J., Kraemer, W., Ratamess, N., Anderson, J., Volek, J., Maresh, C. Testosterone Physiology In Resistance Exercise and Training: the Up-Stream Regulatory Elements. Sports Medicine. 2010. 40(12), 1037-1053.
References #4
Beaven, C., Cook, C., Gill, N. Significant Strength Gains Observed in Rugby Players After Specific Resistance Exercise Protocols Based on Individual Salivary Testosterone Responses. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22(2), 419-425.
Beaven, C., Gill, N., Cook, C. Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Responses Following Four Resistance Training Protocols in Professional Rugby Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22, 426-432.
References #5
Crewther, B., Cronin, J., Keogh, J., Cook, C. The Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Response to Three Loading Schemes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22(1), 250-255.
Reference #6
Beaven, C., Gill, N., Ingram, J., Hopkins, W. Acute Salivary Hormone Responses to Complex Exercise Bouts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011. 25(4), 1072-1078.
Reference #7
Crewther, B., Cook, C., Lowe, T., Weatherby, R., Gill, N. The Effects of Short-Cycle Sprints on Power, Strength, and Salivary Hormones in Elite Rugby Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011. 25(1), 32-39.
References #8
Smith, G., Atherton, P., Reeds, D., Mohammed, G., Rankin, D., Rennie, M., Middendorfer, B. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women. Clinical Science. 2011. 121(6), 267-278.
Smith, G., Atherton, P., Reeds, D., Mohammed, B., Rankin, D., Rennie, M., Mittendorfer, B. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Increases the Rate of Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93(2), 402-412.
Neek, L., Gaeini, A., Choobineh, S. Effect of Zinc and Selenium Supplementation on Serum Testosterone and Plasma Lactate in Cyclist After an Exhaustive Exercise Bout. Biological Trace Element Research. 9 July 2011. Published Ahead of Print.
Chang, C., Choi, J., Kim, H., Park, S. Correlation Between Serum Testosterone Level and Concentrations of Copper and Zinc in Hair Tissue. Biological Trace Element Research. 14 June 2011. Published Ahead of Print.
References #9
Glynn, E., Fry, C., Drummond, M., Timmerman, K., Dhanani, S., Volpi, E., Rasmussen, B. Excess Leucine Intake Enhances Muscle Anabolic Signaling but Not Net Protein Anabolism in Young Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition. 2010. 140(11), 1970-1976.
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Reference #10
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