Nutrition

Fit-Chef Lasagne

Ingredients

lasagne

MEAT SAUCE

  • 500g Lean Turkey Mince
  • 1 large Onion, finely chopped
  • 1 Carrot, finely chopped
  • 2 cloves Garlic, finely chopped/crushed
  • 400g Can Chopped Tomatoes
  • 250g Mushrooms, finely chopped
  • 2 tbsp Tomato Puree
  • 30ml Red Wine
  • 1 tbsp fresh Oregano, chopped
  • 1 Bay Leaf
  • Organic Sea Salt & Cracked Black Pepper

WHITE SAUCE

  • 700ml Skimmed Milk
  • 1 thick slice of Onion
  • 1 Bay Leaf
  • 3 tbsp Corn Flour
  • Freshly grated Nutmeg

OTHER INGREDIENTS

  • 250g Wholemeal Lasagne Sheets
  • Coconut Oil
  • Organic Sea Salt & Cracked Black Pepper

Salad to accompany;

Spinach Leaves
Cherry Tomatoes (chopped)
Cucumber (sliced)
Gherkins (chopped)
Red/Green Peppers (chopped)

METHOD

*In a large frying pan heat the coconut oil, then gently cook the onion and garlic, making sure not to brown.

*Add the turkey mince and cook until the mince is no longer pink, spoon off any fat, but leave the juices.

*Add the tinned tomatoes, red wine, oregano, bay leaf and tomato puree.

*Bring to the boil, reduce to a simmer, cover and cook gently for 20 minutes

*Add the mushrooms, cooking for a further 10 mins.

*In a separate pan pour all but 4 tbsp of the milk.

*Add the slice of onion & bay leaf and bring to the boil, then remove from the heat and leave to stand for 15 minutes.

*Add the remaining milk to a large bowl and mix in the cornflour.

*After the infused milk has cooled for 15 minutes, strain it into the bowl with the cornflour and milk using a sieve.

*Return this to the pan and simmer for 2-3 minutes stirring continuously, until thickened, season and add the nutmeg.

*Preheat the oven to 190°C, (gas mark 5)

*Cover the bottom of a medium sized ovenproof dish with a single layer of lasagne sheets.

*Spoon a layer of the meat sauce and cover with a layer of white sauce.

*Arrange a layer of lasagne sheets on top.

*Continue layering, finishing with a layer of white sauce.

*Bake for 20-25 minutes.

*Serve with salad or vegetables

ENJOY!!

Mighty Matcha Part 2: Recipes & Ideas

Yesterday I posted an article on the benefits of Matcha Green Tea. Really, it was a re-post as the article has been up on the Totalbodysculpture website for a while now. So, i decided it would also be beneficial to those that haven’t seen it, if i posted the second part of the article that’s up there; How it can be used! So, check out these recipes and original ideas about ways that you can use this awesome green superfood!!

Matcha Green Tea Latte

The trick to preparing a cafe style matcha green tea latte is to make the tea first, then add the hot milk and foam.Image

Sift 1 tsp Matcha into a cup
Melt matcha by adding 2 oz hot water and stirring until matcha becomes a smooth paste
Pour 6 oz steamed* milk into your favorite matcha bowl or teacup
Add “melted” matcha tea to the milk
Scoop foamy milk on top
Sprinkle with matcha dust or cocoa powder

Optional
Add vanilla, almond or mint flavors, use almond milk or coconut milk for a twist, sweeten with honey, combine steps and froth milk and tea all together

Matcha Green Tea Ice-Cream

2 cups milk
4 egg yolks
2/3 cups sugar
1 Tbsp cornstarch
1/3 tsp salt
4 Tbsp matcha + 2/3 cup hot water
1 cup fresh cream

Heat the milk in a small pan to about 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). Remove from heat and set aside.
Place the egg yolks in a pan and beat lightly. Add the sugar and salt. Mix thoroughly with a whisk.  Image
Gradually pour in the heated milk and stir, making sure that no lumps form.  Strain the mixture and pour it back into the pan.
Place the pan over a low flame and cook until the milk thickens, stirring all the time with a wooden ladle.  Remove from heat and set aside.
Mix the matcha and hot water and stir briskly until the paste becomes smooth.
In another bowl, whip the cream until semi-stiff, fold the milk, and add the matcha paste.
Pour into a metal or plastic container, and place in the freezer to set.  After two hours, take it out and mix thoroughly with a spoon or whisk, then resume freezing.  Repeat this process 3 or 4 times to ensure the ice-cream is smooth.

Matcha Tea Cake

To serve 6

3 ounces (3/4 cup) flour
1 tbsp matcha tea (ingredient grade)
4 whole large eggs, at room temperature
½ cup caster sugar

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.

Sift the cake flour with the tea three times. Using an oil spray, coat the bottom of a 9-inch round cake pan lightly. Place a round of parchment paper on the bottom of the pan and spray the parchment lightly. Set the pan aside.Image

Place the eggs and sugar into a heatproof bowl. Place the bowl over a bain marie. Whisking constantly, heat until the eggs and sugar feel warm to the touch (approximately 100-110 degrees F.).
Pour the mixture into the bowl of an electric mixer, fitted with a whisk attachment, and beat until light in color and texture, approximately tripled in volume. Gently fold the dry ingredients into the egg foam without deflating, making sure that there is no undissolved flour lurking at the bottom of the mixing bowl.
Immediately scoop the mixture into the prepared cake pan and bake for approximately 25 minutes, or until the cake tests done when a skewer is inserted into the center. Cool on a rack.

Matcha & Chocolate Truffles

1 Tbsp Honey
250g Cream
2 Tbsp Matcha Powder
2 Tbsp Brown Sugar
350g 85% Dark Chocolate

Bring cream to a simmer in a small saucepan over gentle heat, add the honey and brown Imagesugar, and stir until dissolved, about 2 minutes. Add 1 tablespoon of the matcha, stir until dissolved, and set aside.
Place the chocolate in a large mixing bowl and pour in the cream mixture. Mix thoroughly, and pour into a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Smooth it out with a rubber spatula. Cool in the refrigerator for about an hour.
Using a spoon, scoop out a heaping teaspoon, and make a ball using the palms of your hands. Repeat until all the chocolate is used, you should wind up with about 50 truffles.

Matcha Protein Smoothie
Image
1 scoop of protein powder
1/2 banana
1/2 cup nonfat milk or yogurt
1 tsp honey
1-2 tsp matcha

Blend ingredients together in a blender.

These are just some of the things you can do with Matcha. Why not try it out for yourself, making matcha butter, or adding 1-2 tablespoons to our Protein Banana Bread or Carrot Cake recipes in the Recipes section of the TBS Website! If you do, drop us a line and post your recipes/pictures on the TBS Facebook page!

Mighty Matcha: The Superhero Green Tea!

Some of the biggest issues to effect society relate to health, whether it is the recent increase in the level of obesity, progression in cancer related treatments, signs and symptoms of stroke or basic nutrition in schools. A health related news story appears daily. With good reason. The quality of our lives is important to us, not just now, but in the years to come. The foods we consume are becoming increasingly more and more important to us, the further our understanding develops. Image

Tea is the 2nd most consumed beverage in the world, second only to water, with an estimated 3 billion Kgs of tea produced each year. In the Western world black tea is the most popular, however Eastern countries such as Japan & China, Green Tea is a much more popular choice, a trend which is filtering into Western culture. The reason for this increase? Simple! Antioxidants!

Antioxidants are one of the biggest vogue subjects today, with a variety of foods lauded for their antioxidant content. The advent of ‘Superfoods’ has given rise to all sorts of claims regarding what we should eat & drink to get/stay healthy.

When it comes to Antioxidants, Green Tea is a big-hitter & ‘Matcha’ is the undisputed King!
One glass of matcha is the equivalent of at least 10 glasses of standard green tea in terms of its antioxidant content and nutritional value. Both blueberries and pomegranates are proven antioxidants with values of 91 and 105 units per gram (respectively) when tested using a method known as Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Matcha green tea has a value of 1300 units per gram!! 25 times greater! Matcha contains 9x the beta carotene content of the superfood spinach, 70x the antioxidants and 137x the level of standard green tea.

Matcha green tea is relatively new in the green tea world. Whilst tea cultivation dates back thousands and thousands of years, particularly in the Far East, matcha in its current form only dates back around 1000 years. It is the tea used in the famous ‘Japanese Tea Ceremony’. The main difference between matcha green tea and other teas is the when it is consumed. Normally black tea or other green teas are consumed via steeping the tea leaves infused with hot water. The water soluble content of the tea diffuses into the water and is consumed, with the tea leaves disposed of. This method is problematic as only a small part of the health benefits of tea are water soluble, depending on tea variety and preparation only 10% – 20% of the healthy nutrients are consumed when drinking steeped tea. With matcha, the whole leaf is ground down to a fine powder, therefore the entire leaf is consumed, thus avoiding any loss of health benefits.

The table below highlights the differences between standard steeped green tea & matcha.

Image

The many benefits of matcha green tea include;

  • Packed with antioxidants including the catechin Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) (see below).
  • Burns calories and boosts metabolism, with one recent study suggesting matcha may increase calorie burning by 400%
  • High in the detoxifyer Chlorophyll, which helps eliminate heavy metals and chemicals from the body
  • Mood enhancement
  • Calming and relaxation effects due to its L-Theanine content (see below)
  • Minimal effect of insulin levels
  • Rich in fibre
  • Provides Selenium, Zinc, Magnesium, Chromium and Vitamin C.

The catechin EGCg is the most abundant catechin in tea and is a potent antioxidant that may have therapeutic applications in the treatment of many disorders (e.g. cancer). It is found in green tea, but not black tea. Catechins are a highly potent form of antioxidants providing potent cancer fighting properties. ImageCatechins counteract the effects of free radicals from influences such as UV rays, radiation, pollution and chemicals which can lead to cell and DNA damage. EGCg is regarded as on of the most powerful catechins, so anything containing a high amount is a good thing. Matcha  contains a particularly high amount of catechins, of which over 60% are EGCg.

Matcha was introduced to the Japanese by a Monk named Eisai in 1200AD as an aid in the practice of meditation. During long hours of worship, monks would ceremoniously drink matcha to remain alert, yet calm. A rare amino acid, L-Theanine, promotes a state of relaxation and well being  due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.  Theanine has psychoactive properties and has been shown to reduce mental and physical stress, improve cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine. Theanine may also help memory and learning ability, whilst also inhibiting the side effects of caffeine.

When it comes to matcha, how it is to be used will place a bearing on the grade of matcha to be used. Traditionally, there are 2 ways of preparing matcha for drinking; ‘Koicha’ – Thick or ‘Usucha’ – Thin. It is also advised to use traditional utensils when preparing drinking matcha. After all, it is a ceremonial tea once described as “The Elixar of the Immortals”
Below are instructions on how to prepare both Koicha and Usucha using the correct utensils.

USUCHA

Preheat the matcha bowl with hot water and place the whisk with prongs facing down into the water to wet them. Once the bowl has thoroughly preheated, empty out the water and dry the bowl out preferably with a cloth such as a chakin. Set the wet whisk aside and then measure out 70ml (approx. 2.3oz) of hot water into a measuring cup and leave it to cool.

Use the bamboo scoop to measure about 2 scoops of matcha powder and place it into the bowl. Sifting the matcha into the bowl is advisable as it will remove any clumps of powder.

Once the water in the measuring cup drops to 70°C(158°F)-80°C(176°F) pour it into the matcha bowl.

Take the whisk in one hand and hold the rim of the matcha bowl with your other hand and start to whisk the matcha. Whisk briskly using your wrist (not arm). Whisk in a W motion until the matcha has a thick froth with many tiny bubbles on the surface. The matcha is now frothy and ready to drink!

KOICHA

Preheat the matcha bowl with hot water and place the whisk with prongs facing down into the water to wet them. Once the bowl has thoroughly preheated, empty out the water and dry the bowl out preferably with a cloth such as a chakin. Set the wet whisk aside and then measure out 40ml (approx. 1.3oz) of hot water into a measuring cup and leave it to cool.

Use the bamboo scoop to measure about 3-4 scoops of matcha powder and place it into the bowl. We highly recommend sifting matcha prior to preparing koicha.

Once the water in the measuring cup drops to 70°C(158°F)-80°C(176°F) pour it into the matcha bowl. The water should be just enough to cover the powder. For koicha, pouring the water in two parts (40% and 60%) often produces better results.

The idea with koicha is NOT to make a frothy consistency with a fast whisking action like usucha. Instead, a slower kneading action from left to right, up and down, and a gentle 360 degree rotating action can be used to make a thick consistency. The resulting tea should be reasonably thick, smooth and without froth.

There has been a considerable increase in the use of matcha in cooking and baking, where its rich green colour and distinctive taste has been applied to dishes from ice cream to pasta. One of the great things about cooking with matcha is that the grade does not have to be as high as that used for beverage preparation.

Fish Oil: Have You Caught On To The Benefits?

The benefits of eating oily fish have been promoted for quite a while now, however introducing it into the diet is not for everyone. Fish oil supplementation is one way of getting the benefits of oily fish, without the bones & scales!

Fish oil will help you lose body fat, providing you with essential fatty acids due to the Omega-3 content. These fatty acids are used by the body to build optimal Imagecellular lipid layer, which is the fat layer surrounding cells known as the Lipid Bilayer. This cell layer can effect metabolism and the activity of insulin, improving your overall insulin sensitivity.

Fish oil also has a beneficial effect on cortisol, making it not only anti-catabolic, but also anabolic. Fish oil enhances the mTOR pathway that produces muscle growth.

The anti-inflammatory benefits of fish oil are well documented, something that is important for those that are looking to be lean and healthy (and who doesn’t?) Anything that causes an inflammatory response in the body such cortisol, can cause a protein degradation effect which can cause a loss of muscle tissue. Fish oil is an powerful anti-inflammatory and can produce a more favourable inflammatory status in the body. This in turn will speed up detoxification, improve cellular health, provide a better environment for muscle growth and fat loss and decrease inflammatory hormones such as cortisol.

Improved Insulin Sensitivity & Metabolism

Cellular lipid layers produced from fish oil improves insulin sensitivity due to its increased binding ability to insulin. Once insulin is bound, it is used to shuttle glucose from the diet into muscles to be stored ready for energy expenditure. Any insulin not stored in the muscle can continue to circulate in the blood stream and be potentially stored as fat. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) insure that cell membranes remain healthy by ensuring cell membrane flexibility and a larger number of insulin receptors. This is why it is essential that your fish oil supplement contains a good  amount of the above. EPA and DHA have different roles in the body. Dr Carrie Ruxton, nutritionist for the Health Supplements Information Service, says: “Studies suggest DHA is more important for the brain, retina and infant development, while EPA is moImagere important for vascular health. The difficulty we have in the UK is that two-thirds of people don’t eat oily fish,’ she says. ‘The main source of long chain omega-3s in the diet is oily fish, and if we can’t get them from that, we need to consider a supplement to top up our diet.’

As well as weight loss and favourable body composition changes, fish oil has also been shown to have medical applications in an extremely wide range of ailments including stroke, bipolar disorder, psoriasis, hay fever, crohns disease, ulcerative colitis and hypertension!

Fish oils also turn lipolytic genes and switch off lipogenic genes. This means that the genes responsible for fat burning are activated, whereas the genes responsible for fat storage are switched off. Fish oil also diminishes C-Reactive proteins. These are proteins that are linked to coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, angina and stroke.

Above all this, fish oil has been shown to increase serotonin levels, happy feeling neurotransmitters, decreasing incidents of depression, anxiety and panic attacks.

Lastly, fish oil has been shown to reduce interlukin-1 beta production, reducing joint stiffness and pain in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers.

VIDEO – Walk Through of Daily Nutritional Planner

In March I launched the latest update of the TBS Daily Nutritional Planner, a simple to use tool that allows you to accurately plan your meals, as well as macro nutrient intake. The Planner has space for up to 7 accurately planned meals, with simple to use drop down options, allowing you to select either your favourite Fit-Chef Recipes or your very own meal plans.

The latest update sees the introduction of software allowing you to measure your bodyfat % using a set of bodyfat callipers. This is on top of the Intermittent Fasting Planner, that is very popular.

Check out the video below for a full insight as to how simple to use the Software is!

The TBS Daily Nutritional Planner can be purchased from the TBS Website at http://www.totalbodysculpture.com

Are You Short-Changing Your Growth: 5 Lifestyle Changes to Better Results

Many people go toIMAG0573 the gym for vanity reasons. It’s an undeniable fact. Lots of men & women want to “Look Good Naked”. There’s nothing wrong with that, it gives people confidence, better self esteem and many other things. However, many people also go to the gym for other reasons, such as the challenge of Personal Bests, physical prowess etc. It doesn’t matter what your reasons are. But what if I told you that despite all your best efforts in the gym, you may be short-changing the results you could get? What if i told you the foods you’re eating, the deodorant you’re using, the fitness regime you’re following is minimising your muscle gains and/or increasing your bodyfat? Would you sit up & take notice?

I’ve put together 5 common factors that could be limiting your progress in the gym!

Well, now I have your attention read on…

1. Too Much Cardio/Not Enough Calories
The subject of Metabolic Damage has moved into the spotlight recently, particularly after a video blog on the subject by Dr. Layne Norton & more recently a Facebook Post by former NFL Footballer-turned Fitness Model Joe Donnelly. Some trainers & coaches have been aware of MD of quite some time & the havoc it can wreck on a person (I say some, because some trainers are actually guilty of causing it!)
If you are someone that could be labelled a ‘Cardio King/Queen’ and eat a particularly small amount of calories, chances are, you’re suffering from MD.
Large amounts of aerobic training can increase oxidative and adrenal stress on the body which can result in an increase in bodyfat.
I’m sure there are many trainers out there that have come across people that say “I do hours of cardio and my diet is very clean, yet I just don’t seem to be able to shift this fat”. Repairing someones metabolism can take time, but reducing the amount of cardio, particularly steady-state cardio, in favour of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & weight training are steps in the right direction. If any of the above sounds familiar, get in touch with a good nutritionist or trainer!

2. Inadequate Sleep.
Adequate sleep promotes recovery by increased growth hormone, DHEA and testosterone. These are important for body composition and our sex hormones. Sleep is also vital in decreasing insulin and cortisol with the end result being less mid section fat and insulin resistance. The average person only gets in around 6 hours of sleep a night, 2 hours less than the recommended 8 hours. Over a week that’s a deficit of 14 hours, over a month, 56 hours!
Late nights & early mornings are one of the reasons some people don’t get enough sleep, however another reason is some people take time to settle once they have retired for the evening, lying in bed for prolonged periods before finally dosing off. This can be down to many factors such as stress or external factors such as noise & light. If you are the kind of person that sits in bed watching TV, this can have adverse effects on your sleeping patterns. Personally, my bedroom is like a cave at night. No TV, no laptops, nothing that disrupts the sleeping pattern. This gives the brain the signal that i’m in this room for one reason & one reason only, to sleep!

3.Estrogenic Effects of Cosmetics
Parabens are chemical preservatives used to fight bacteria & fungus in cosmetics such as shampoos, moisturisers, shaving gels, cleansing gels, personal lubricants (oooo!!), topical pharmaceuticals and toothpaste. They are extremely cheap to produce and are widely used. Unfortunately, they have also been linked to an increase in levels of estrogen within the body, which is a known factor in the development of cancer. Researchers have found parabens in breast tumours and believe there is a relationship between parabens and tumours. In the July 2002 issue of the Archives of Toxicology, Dr. S. Oishi of the Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health reported that exposure of newborn male mammals to butylparaben “adversely affects the secretion of testosterone and the function of the male reproductive system.” Although the research is still in its early stages, may be you should check out the products you are using, especially as the skin & hair are the 1st & 2nd largest organs of the body and are particularly absorbent of products placed on them. Sure, some cosmetics are a little more expensive, but if i told you that the cheaper protein powder your using may be increasing your estrogen levels, would you choose a more expensive alternative?

4. Soy – Not the Superfood you thought it was.
Following on from Parabens & their effects on estrogen is Soy. Soy is a grain which the isn’t digested properly and can often lead to damage of the intestinal lining. Soy is also one of the most sprayed crops produced, leading to an increase of the toxic load on the body, which in turn can promotes the storage of body fat. Soy also contains goitragens which lead to hypothyroidism, disrupts brain function (soy is full of manganese which leads to neurotoxicity), increases the risk of breast cancer (estrogenic stimulation can lead to breast cancer, so having a load of ‘healthy’ soy in your diet will definitely cause estrogenic stimulation) and decreases testosterone levels (high isoflavonoid intake result in deregulated sexual hormones). Soy can also inhibit the absorption of important macro-minerals such as calcium and trace minerals such as zinc due to its high content of phytates.

5. From Soy to Zinc
As mentioned above, Soy can effect the levels of absorption of important trace minerals such as zinc. Zinc deficiency is one of the most common and most serious of mineral deficiencies and is prevalent amongst the majority of people. It is so common in fact that World Renowned Strength Coach Charles Poliquin actually assumes all of his athletes are zinc deficient until they can prove otherwise. Zinc is involved in over 300 enzymatic and hormonal functions within the body. Combine this with the fact that low levels of zinc can slow muscle growth, decrease immune functionality, reduce testosterone levels, effect appetite, decrease sperm count and cause problematic skin, it’s quickly apparent that zinc levels are important. I carry out a Zinc Taste Test of all my training clients and recommend all of my online clients do the same.

Chest, Chicken & Cous-Cous!

At the moment i’m without a ‘base’ gym and because of this i’m not able to train the way I want to. My workouts have been confined to the equipment available to me on the fire stations I work at, whether it’s my base station or a detatched station. Luckily, my base station is equipped with a bench press & recently a decent amount of olympic plates. So i was able to get in a short, yet intense workout, although i’ll be honest in saying that I didn’t really feel on it & was maybe a little fatigued from hitting shoulders hard the day before.

The session was as follows;

Flat Bench Press 5 sets, 3 x 6 reps & then 2 x 12

Incline Smith Machine Press, 2 x 6 & then 2 x 12

Flat Dumbbell Flyes 3 x 10

Flat Smith Machine Press 2 x 25, Supersetted with 2 x 50 press ups.

Post workout I had my Moroccan Chicken & Cous-Cous soup or to give it its proper name, ‘Shurba Suksu’. This is a nicely spiced, flavoursome soup, full of protein, some complex carbs & very low fat.

The recipe is as follows;

Image2x Chicken Breasts cut in to small pieces

1 x Can of Chopped Tomatoes (420g)

1 x Onion, grated

2 Cloves Garlic, minced

1 tspn Ground Cumin

1 tspn Cayenne Pepper

1 tspn Turmeric

1 tspn Paprika

1 tspn Organic Sea Salt

1 tspn Freshly Cracked Black Pepper Corns

8 cups/ 2 litres Water

3/4 cup/175g Cous-Cous

3 tbsp Fresh Mint leaves, chopped

2 tbsp Chopped Parsley

2 tbsp Chopped Coriander

Juice of 1/2 Lime

*Place the chicken pieces in a large saucepan together with the tomatoes, onion, ground spices, garlic and salt & pepper.

*Add 3 cups/720ml of water to the pan & bring to the boil.

*Reduce the heat, cover and simmer gently for 45-50 minutes.

*The chicken should be nice and tender.

*Add the remaining 5 cups/1 1/2 litres of water and bring back to a gentle simmer.

*Add the couscous, ensuring it is evenly distributed

*Add the chopped mint leaves, coriander & parsley.

*Simmer gently for a further 15 minutes, stirring occasionally.

*Add the lime juice and any further seasoning.

OPTIONS!

I have replaced the couscous with both bulgar wheat & quinoa in the past and both have a produced a really tasty alternative!

You can also add some extra veg to the soup, such as chopped pepper, courgette and leek, as well as beans or lentils! Experiment & post your efforts on the TotalBodySculpture Facebook Wall!!

Enjoy!

The Growth Hormone Response: Get Anabolic Pt2

Get the greatest training gains by creating the most anabolic response and positively manipulate your hormonal system. The hormonal, or endocrine, system supports your body’s equilibrium by releasing hormones in response to stresses such as resistance training or sprint conditioning. While testosterone is often considered the most potent anabolic hormone, growth hormone (GH) is possibly the most interesting one.
GH is released from the anterior pituitary gland in bursts throughout the day, with the largest burst usually coming at night. One of its key functions is to regulate body fat and lean tissue, but it also builds bone and connective tissue, and boosts the immune system. GH stimulates the secretion of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1),  and with resistance training, it increases amino acid uptake to enhance protein synthesis and muscle building—all good stuff you need for optimal health and a lean physique.
GH is not only affected by resistance training but other external factors such as sleep, nutrition, and alcohol consumption play a major role on GH release patterns. Here are eleven things you need to know to increase GH levels and reap the benefits of increased fat burning and protein synthesis.

1)    Use a High Total Volume of Work and Short Rest Periods

Extensive research shows that short rest periods and large total volume of work are the two most important factors in leading to a significant increase in GH levels. Use a heavy resistance (not a maximal strength load), such as 75 to 85 percent of the 1 RM with rest periods between 30 seconds and one minute.2)    A Hypertrophy-Type Protocol is Best to Trigger GH
We know that a large number of sets and high total volume results in the greatest GH increase. Research supports this with evidence that a hypertrophy-type protocol, such as training four sets of ten reps of squats at 75 percent of the 1 RM is more effective at increasing GH than a strength (3 x 11 at 90 1RM) or power protocol (8 x 6 of jump squats with no weight). Researchers note that for optimal results, a greater number of exercises than were used in this study should be trained for peak GH stimulation.

3)    Train Above the Lactate Threshold: Lactate Associated with GH Release

High volume and short rest periods will result in greater lactate concentrations, which has been shown to trigger GH. A 2010 study compared the effect of rest period length on GH release, testing 60, 90, and 120 second rest periods with a training program that used four sets of bench press and squats at 85 percent of the 1 RM. Participants lifted each set to failure, meaning that the two longer rest periods of 90 and 120 seconds allowed for about a 15 percent greater volume of work than the 60 second rest period group because participants were able to recover more completely between lifts. Even so, GH release was highest in the 60-second group. Researchers point to the increased metabolic stress of the heavy lifts with short rest to increased lactate and hydrogen ion accumulation that elevates GH.

4)    Use Eccentric-Enhanced Lifts: Increase GH and Lactate

Training with heavier eccentric loads is a great way for advanced lifters to gain strength and trigger GH. Researchers compared training the bench press and squat using a traditional program (4 sets of 6 reps at 52.5 percent of 1RM) with an eccentric-enhanced program (3 X 6 at 40 percent 1RM for the concentric motion and 100 percent 1RM for eccentric) and found that GH increased more after the eccentric-enhanced training.  It also led to both a greater post-exercise lactate response and subsequent increased lactate clearance rate than traditional training. It was surprising that the eccentric training group had a greater GH response because this group performed a lower volume of work than the traditional group, suggesting that this form of training may be more efficient in eliciting anabolic stimuli and strength adaptations based on relative total volume. The correlation between elevated lactate response and GH was likely the key. Trainees with limited training time will benefit from adding eccentric training as would athletes who compete above the lactate threshold (boxers, wrestlers, rowers).

A second study of eccentric training had similar results. A group that trained with 90 percent of the 1RM load generated the greatest GH spike. Researchers note that their study used too low of a training volume (four sets to failure of the bench press, comparing eccentric loads at 70, 80, 90, and 100 percent) for a large GH increase. Despite this, they did find that GH was highest after the 90 percent load, and this elevation was significantly more than with the 100 percent load. The takeaway point from these studies is that eccentric training can  be incorporated into a complete program to train the human strength curve and trigger GH.

5)    Do Conditioning with Sprint Intervals to Trigger GH
Sprint intervals of varying lengths will allow you to produce more GH because they allow you to train above the lactate threshold and pack a potent metabolic punch. Two studies from Israel tested hormone response with a variety of sprint schemes. Using four 250 meter sprints at 80 percent of maximal 100 meter speed elevated GH with no increase in cortisol. Additionally, IGF binding protein-3, which is GH dependent and has anabolic effects because it stimulates IGF-1 bioactivity, did increase.

A second study by the same research group looked at hormone response to both a decreasing (400, 300, 200, 100 meters) and an increasing (100, 200, 300, 400 meters) sprint interval scheme. The decreasing distance protocol had a greater GH and lactate response, indicating a higher metabolic demand. Take note that trainees rated the decreasing distance protocol as easier on a rating of perceived exertion scale. Having the 400 meters, the longest, hardest distance at the end was very difficult from a mental standpoint. Combining a psychologically easier workout with a greater GH anabolic response is obviously the best choice.

6)    Target GH Bursts With Nutrition
It is essential to make sure you’re feeding your body with the right nutrients at the right times to target the protein synthesis that comes when the pituitary releases bursts of GH. Include a whey protein supplement and essential amino acids (EAAs) in your nutrition program for the best results.

Research shows that whey protein is more anabolic than casein protein even though they are both derived from milk. A recent study found that protein synthesis following training with consumption of whey was 122 percent greater than with casein because whey is more rapidly digested. There is additional evidence that ingesting a supplement of 20 grams of EAAs combined with carbohydrates (both 30 g and 90 g were tested with similar outcomes) stimulates protein synthesis after training and results in a decrease in muscle protein breakdown. This means supplementing with EAAs/carbs facilitates a significant anabolic effect, while slightly decreasing the catabolic processes that come with cortisol release from metabolic stress.

7)    Take EAAs and Train to Failure: Sensitize the Muscle to Feeding

The greatest anabolic environment is created through nutritional supplementation and training to muscle failure. Research shows that taking 15 grams of EAAs immediately after training to failure, and again 24 hours after training, increases protein synthesis more than if submaximal exercise had been done. Weight training to failure is necessary because it recruits Type 2 muscle fibers and sensitizes the muscle to EAA feeding.

Interestingly, researchers found elevated protein synthesis and enhanced EAA sensitivity in response to using two very different loading schemes to failure: a 90 percent 1 RM load and a 30 percent 1 RM load. This was not the case with an exercise protocol using a 30 percent load that didn’t train to failure.

Use this knowledge when doing eccentric-enhanced training—remember research shows it should be done to failure—by targeting the GH bursts with the right nutrition for peak protein synthesis and fat burning.

8)    Strategic Programming to Be Anabolic: Do Large Muscle Mass Lifts First
It’s crucial to train single-limb exercises to correct structural imbalances between the left and right side of the body, and between the agonist/antagonist muscle pairs. Unilateral training decreases the risk of injury and improves improper motor patterns, allowing for greater health and longevity as an athlete or trainee. Plus, unilateral lower body training in addition to regular bilateral training has been shown to result in faster short sprint times, even in elite sprinters.

Single limb training (single leg squats, single side dumbbell chest press, single side cable low row to name a few) is effective at improving strength unilaterally but not bilaterally, meaning it needs to be done in addition to other bilateral training to trigger an anabolic response. A recent study compared GH response in unilateral and bilateral exercises at 80 percent of the 1RM. GH increased for both groups but was more elevated in the bilateral training group.  Insulin, another anabolic hormone, increased equally for both groups.

For best GH response, on the day you include unilateral training, start with large muscle mass exercises to stimulate testosterone and GH—lower body exercises such as squats, power cleans, and dead lifts are recommended at a high percentage of the 1 RM, with a high total volume. This strategic programming should dramatically increase hormone secretion once unilateral or smaller muscle mass exercises are started.

9)    Take Arginine, Ornithine, and Betaine

Add arginine, ornithine, and betaine to your nutrition stack for a greater GH response after training. All three are amino acids (actually betaine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine) and they’ve all been shown to improve performance and make you more anabolic.A new study found that taking 1.5 grams twice a day of betaine improved participants vertical jump height, bench press throw power, and maximal number of squat reps at a 90 percent load. It also resulted in a greater GH and IGF-1 release than a placebo group. Plus, cortisol release decrease, indicating that betaine creates a potent muscle building environment. Researchers suggest that performance improved because betaine helps support the synthesis of creatine phosphate, the body’s energy source for intense short-term exercise.

Additionally, taking a combination of arginine (3000 mgs) and ornithine (2200 mgs) twice a day has been shown to result in elevated GH levels after performing five sets of five squats at 80 percent of the 1RM. Interestingly, long, five-minute rest periods were used, which is different from previous evidence that short rest periods are ideal to elicit maximal GH release. This suggests that with proper programming longer rest can be used to allow for more complete recovery and greater maximal lifts.

10)    Take Alpha-GPC: Stimulate GH and Produce More Force

Alpha-GPC helps create a potent anabolic environment because it stimulates the pituitary gland thereby elevating GH production. It is particularly effective in increasing GH response in older trainees, and has been shown to improve brain function cognition in the elderly.

Alpha-GPC is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in muscle contractions throughout the body. One study found that Alpha-GPC increased GH levels in young and older individuals after resistance training and that the hormone elevation was more pronounced in the older subjects.

A second study presented at the conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that taking 600 mg of Alpha-GPC prior to performing six sets of ten reps of squats at 70 percent of the 1 RM improved GH response 44-fold compared to a placebo group that only had a 2.6-fold GH increase. Participants performed three sets of bench press throws thirty minutes after the squats to test their peak force. The Alpha-GPC group produced 14 percent greater force than the placebo group.

I’ve counseled the use of Alpha-GPC for years to improve lean body mass and fat burning, while supporting brain function. You’ll improve force production, strength and muscle mass by taking Alpha-GPC prior to your workout. Check out the Poliquin Alpha-GPC.

11)    How to Use Longer Rest Periods For Maximal GH Release
It is generally accepted that shorter rest periods with a high volume of work results in the greatest GH response, but there is evidence that if you program correctly and use a wave-like program, you can still maximize GH with longer rest. Researchers have cautioned that short rest intervals are associated with cortisol release, possibly inhibiting a long-term hypertrophic effect and that testosterone and IGF-1 are not elevated with short rest intervals. Plus the highest-threshold motor units are only recruited without heavy loads or by training to failure.

One strategy is to include eccentric training to failure with longer rest periods, which we’ve already discussed in #4. Another option is to vary your rest periods within the workout or to do a program for two weeks that includes mainly short rest periods for hypertrophy and peak GH response followed by a maximal strength phase with longer rest. Additionally, research suggests that circuit training can be used to trigger GH and get equal strength gains as a traditional training program. A new study found circuit resistance training resulted in equal blood lactate accumulation to a traditional program indicating that this style of training will equally trigger GH. Strength gains were equal in participants in both the circuit and traditional training groups.

The benefit of circuit training comes from the fact that it is part of a varied training approach (and it takes less time). Nutrition, wavy training, a high volume, eccentric-enhanced lifts, and relatively short rest periods will make you more anabolic and help you achieve the ideal physique.


Reference #1

Fry, A., Kudrna, R., Gallagher, P., Moodie, N., Prewitt, M. Acute Endocrine Responses to Maximal Velocity Barbell squats with Three Different Loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. March 2011. 25(Suppl 91-92).Reference #2
McCaulley, G., McBride, J., Cormie, P., Hudson, M., Nuzzo, J., Quidry, J., Triplett, N. Acute Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Hypertrophy, Strength and Power Type Resistance Exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009. 105(5), 695-704.

Reference #3
Rahman, R., Qaderi, M., Faraji, H., Boroujerdi, S. Effects of Very Short Rest Periods on Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise in Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(7), 1851-1859.

References #4
Yarrow, J., Borsa, P., Borst, S., Sitren, J., Stevens, B., White, L. Early-Phase Neuroendocrine Responses and Strength Adaptations Following Eccentric-Enhanced Resistance Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22(4), 1205-1214.

Crewther, B., Cronin, J., Keogh, J., Cook, C. The Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Response to Three Loading schemes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.2008. 22(1), 250-255.References #5
Meckel, Y., Eliakim, A., Seraev, M., Zaldivar, F., Cooper, D., Sabiv, M., Nemet, D. The Effect of a Brief Sprit Interval Exercise on Growth Factors and Inflammatory Mediators. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009. 23(1), 225-230.

Meckel, Y., Nemet, D., Bar-Sela, S., Radom-Aizik, S.  Hormonal and Inflammatory Responses to Different Types of Sprint Interval Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011. 25(8), 2161-2169.

References #6

Blynn, E., Fry, C., Drummond, M., Dreyer, H., Dhanani, S., Volpi, E. Muscle Protein Breakdown Has A Minor Role in the Protein Anabolic Response to Essential Amino Acid and Carbohydrate Intake Following Resistance Exercise. American Journal of Physiology. 2010. 299(2), R533-540.
Tang, J., Morre, D., Kuibida, G., Tarnopolsky, M., Phillips, S. Ingestion of Why Hydrolysate, Casein, or Soy Protein Isolate: Effects on Mixed Muscle Protein Synthesis at Rest and Following Resistance Exercise in Young Men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009. 107(3), 987-992.References #7
Burd, N., West, D., Moore, D., Atherton, P., Staples, A., Prior, T., Tang, J., Rennie, M., Baker, S., Phillips, S. Enhanced Amino Acid Sensitivity of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Persists for up to 24 Hours After Resistance Exercise in Young Men. The Journal of Nutrition. 2011. 141(4), 568-573.

References #8
Uchida, M., Crewther, B., Ugrinowitsch, C., Bacurau, R., Morisot, A., Aoki, M. hormonal Responses to Different Resistance Exercise Schemes of Similar Total Volume. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009. 23(7). 2003-2008.

Migiano, M., Vingren, J., Volek, J., Maresh, C., Fragala, M., Ho, J., Thomas, G., Hatfield, D., Hakkinen, K., Ahtiainen, J., Earp, J., Kraemer, W. Endocrine Response Patterns to Acute Unilateral and Bilateral Resistance Exercise in Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(8), 128-134.References #9
Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A., Beller, J., Craig, S. Effect of Fifteen Days of Betaine Ingestion on Concentric and Eccentric Force Outputs During Isokinetic Exercise. Journal of Strength and conditioning Research. 2011. 25(8), 2235-2241.

Kraemer, W., Bailey, B., Clark, J., Apicella, J., Lee, E., Comstock, B., Dunn-Lewis, C., Volek, J., Kupchak, B., Anderson, J., Craig, S., Maresh, C. The Influence of Betaine Supplementation on Work Performance and Endocrine Function in Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. March 2011. 25(Suppl 1).
Zajac, A., Peprezecki, S., Zebrowska, A. Chalimoniuk, M., Langfort, J. Arginine and Ornithine Supplementation Increases Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Serum Levels After Heavy-Resistance Exercise in Strength-Trained Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(4), 1082-1090.References #10
Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J., Hofheins, J. Acute Supplementation with Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine Augments Growth Hormone Response to, and Peak Force Production During, Resistance Exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. September 2008. 5(suppl 1), 15-16.

Ceda, G., Ceresini, G., Denti, L., Marzani, G., Piovani, E., Banchini, A., Tarditi, E., Valenti, G. Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcoline Administration Increases the GH Responses to GHRH of Young and Elderly Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research. March 1992. 24(3), 119-121.References #11
DeSalles, B., Simao, R., Miranda, F., Novaes, J., Lemos, A., Willardson, J. Rest Interval Between Sets in Strength Training. Sports Medicine. 2009. 39(9)m 765-777.

The Testosterone Response: Get Anabolic Pt1 by Charles Poliquin

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Testosterone is the most potent muscle-building hormone and recent research shows that adequate levels are directly related to health and well being in men. Testosterone (T) is directly involved in muscle building and promotes the secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland—another essential anabolic hormone for tissue repair and fat burning.
Optimal T levels correlate with a lean body composition and low levels can lead to fat gain and muscle loss. Additionally, low T levels are associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, elevated cancer risk, particularly prostate, not to mention a low sex drive, fatigue, decreased bone density, depression, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Aging, particularly beyond 40 years is associated with a one to three percent decline per year in T concentration, eventually resulting in a condition known as andropause.
Wondering what you can do to increase T levels?
First, understand the relationship between cortisol and testosterone. Second, follow my research-based tips for the greatest anabolic training response.
Testosterone is typically measured in relation to the catabolic, muscle degrading hormone, cortisol. The best T response from training allows you to increase strength and lean body mass by elevating protein synthesis and inhibiting the catabolic effects from high-intensity training. A higher testosterone-to-cortisol (T:C) ratio reflects your ability to maintain a higher intensity and volume of training as well as have a speedier and more effective recovery from workouts. Naturally, if you can train harder and longer, you’ll get better results and improved performance.
1)    Go Heavy and Use Large Muscle Lifts: Olympic Lifts, Squats, Deadlifts
It’s been well established that for the maximal T response, your best bet is to do a lot of squats, deadlifts, and Olympic lifts such as power cleans and snatches. A significant metabolic stress in the form of a high volume load, particularly in order to yield a favorable T:C ratio with heavy lifts (85-95 percent of the 1RM) and a moderate to high volume of training is also necessary.For example, a study of rugby players, found that training four exercises of 3 sets of 5 at 85 percent of the 1 RM resulted in a greater increase in T (by 13 percent) after the workout than three lighter loads equated for volume.2)    The Importance of Volume
Researchers suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume in eliciting T and C responses to training. It has been established through research that strict maximal strength and power protocols produce only modest changes in anabolic hormone levels, while hypertrophy protocols commonly yield a significant hormone response.

For example, even with heavy lifts such as a 90 percent 1 RM load, you won’t get a significant T response without a large volume of work. Research shows that with a relatively low volume of work, a hypertrophy-type (4 sets of 10 reps of squat at 75 percent of 1 RM) protocol is more effective at creating an anabolic environment than a strength-type (11 sets of 3 reps at 90 percent of 1 RM), or a power-type (8 sets of 6 reps of jump squats with no weight).

The hypertrophy protocol resulted in a significant increase in T, C, and sex hormone-binding globulin, indicating both a state of protein degradation and an adaptive process leading to increased protein synthesis. Workouts with a larger volume that incorporate specific strength and power lifts for variety would create the best anabolic response.

3)    What About Rest Periods?

While short rest periods with high-intensity training have been shown to create a potent anabolic environment by eliciting a strong GH and T response, recent research shows that longer rest periods may be more effective in triggering T release if you program properly. A new study compared the affect of rest period length on GH and T response. Participants performed four sets to failure of bench press and squat at 85 percent of 1RM with either 60, 90, or 120 seconds of rest between sets. Because participants were lifting to failure, training volume for the 90- and 120-second rest groups was about 15 percent greater than for the 60-second group because they were more rested.

T levels increased the most with the longest rest period of 120 seconds, most likely due to the higher training volume because participants were able to recover more completely. The 60-second group had the highest increase in GH, indicating the importance of using a variable training program that incorporates both short rest periods to stimulate GH for and longer rest periods to get the critical T response. The slightly longer rest allows for the use of heavier loads and greater recovery between lifts, resulting in a higher total volume for the best T release. Don’t ignore the value of T to counteract the muscle degradation of high-intensity training that elevates cortisol.

4)    The Individual Nature of Testosterone Response

The good news is that there is more than one training protocol for getting a strong T response and building muscle. Things begin to get complicated when we look at individual role of T in different trainees.

Two studies from New Zealand of rugby players support a variable training protocol for strength and muscle mass gains and the fact that T response is individualized. Both studies compared the same exercise protocols: four exercises using 4 sets of 10 at 70 percent of 1RM; 3 X 5 at 85 percent; 5 X 15 at 55 percent; or 3 X 5 at 40 percent.

Take note that not all of the study’s participants had optimal T responses to the same protocol: two had the largest T response to performing 3 X 5 at 40 percent—a surprisingly light load and low volume. The majority of the players had the greatest T response to 4 sets of 10 at 70 percent.

The takeaway point from this study is that individuals with a low T-response threshold may have a greater anabolic response to a low-load, explosive training protocol, such as 85-95 percent 1 RM Olympic lifts of power squats for 5 sets of 3. Alternately, for those that require a large volume of exercise to elicit a T response, a 5 X 15 at 55 percent protocol may be more appropriate.

5)    How Can I Get the Best T:C Ratio?
The second study from the New Zealand researchers used the same group of rugby players and tested the same four exercise protocols on T:C ratio. In fact, all four exercise schemes yielded decreases in C concentration. The program that produced the most favorable ratio was 3 sets of 5 at 85 percent of the 1RM (13 percent increase in T and 38 percent decrease in C), which supports the idea that heavy resistance with large muscle groups is key.

Very similar results are evident from other studies comparing strength, hypertrophy, and power. I’ll say it again, a high volume is important with a hypertrophy-type protocol that allows for variety in the training scheme, occasionally including strength and power exercises if desired.

6)    Use Complex Training to Manipulate the T:C Ratio in Your Favor
Add complex training with a strength-then-power protocol to trigger more T release and a better T:C ratio. A recent study found that using a strength-power squat protocol is more effective than a power-power, power-strength, or strength-strength combination training order. The strength-power order resulted in the greatest T response of 13 percent and a “trivial cortisol response.” The power-power bout yielded the least favorable ratio with a significant C response and the smallest T response of all. Researchers note that despite a relatively limited T increase, the strength-power protocol has the potential to enhance the anabolic environment for adaptation.

7)    Warm-up With Sprints for the Greatest Anabolic Response
Prime the muscles and the endocrine system with all-out sprints prior to resistance training to lift more weight and get a better T:C ratio. A recent study found that performing one lower- and one upper-body body cycle sprint (40 seconds long) prior to a box squat and bench throw workout resulted in a higher T response. Participants also had greater maximal lifts in the squat. Researchers point to the importance of using large muscle lower body sprints and lifts for the most anabolic milieu.

8)    Testosterone and Fish Oil: Omega-3s are Anabolic!
Take fish oil to build muscle and get an anabolic response. Recent research shows that fish oil supplementation enhances protein synthesis and decreases C levels. In one study participants increased lean mass and decreased body fat after taking fish oil for eight weeks and they did no exercise or resistance training. The lower C levels are likely the reason for the positive body composition improvements.

While fish oil hasn’t been found to actually raise T levels, zinc supplementation has. Research shows there is a significant relationship between low zinc levels and low T levels in men. Additionally, taking a zinc supplement has been shown to increase T response to high-intensity to cycling more than a placebo. Don’t leave muscle gain on the table—take zinc for the best T response.

9)    Take Branched-Chain Amino Acids for a Better T:C Ratio
If you haven’t added branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to your nutrition program, two recent studies should convince you to do so. A 2010 study found that taking BCAAs while resistance training results in significantly higher T levels with a lower creatine kinase and C response. This is significant because both strength gains and a decrease in protein degradation are more correlated with a better T:C ratio than total testosterone levels.

A second study compared taking 10 grams of protein that was 18 percent leucine with a similar drink that was 35 percent leucine. The higher leucine concentration resulted in greater anabolic protein signaling, which means less muscle breakdown from the degrading effects of C.

10)    Anabolic Signaling, T, and Wave-Like Training
Anabolic signaling relates to the process of how T interacts with hormone receptors, specifically androgen receptors (AR). Increasing the activity of ARs—or upregulating them—results in a greater anabolic response. Research shows that using wave-like training with varying programming schemes can upregulate ARs and elevate T levels.

A recent study used a 21-week total body resistance training program with men who performed seven exercises with varying loads and repetition/set schemes. Participants performed each of the following protocols for seven weeks: strength endurance, hypertrophy, and maximal strength. All participants significantly increased muscle size and 1RM strength, and had higher T levels following training sessions.

Researchers found that in individuals with the greatest T response, ARs were equally more upregulated. Plus, the magnitude of muscle growth correlated to greater T and AR upregulation, indicating the critical nature of T in creating an anabolic environment.

The Growth Hormone Response:  Get Anabolic Pt2

Reference #1

Crewther, B., Cook, C., Cardinale, M., Weatherby, R., Lowe, T. Two Emerging Concepts for Elite Athletes: The Short-Term Effects of Testosterone and Cortisol on the Neuromuscular System and the Dose-Response Training Role of these Endogenous Hormones. Sports Medicine. 2011. 41(2), 103-123.
References #2
McCauley, G., McBride, J., Cormie, P., Hudson, M., Nuzzo, J., Quidry, J., Triplett, N. Acute Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Hypertrophy, Strength and Power Type Resistance Exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009. 105(5), 695-704.
Fry, A., Kudrna, R., Gallagher, P., Moodie, N., Prewitt, M. Acute Endocrine Responses to Maximal Velocity Barbell squats with Three Different Loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. March 2011. 25(Suppl 91-92).
References #3
Rahman, R., Qaderi, M., Faraji, H., Boroujerdi, S. Effects of Very Short Rest Periods on Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise in Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(7), 1851-1859.
Vingren, J., Kraemer, W., Ratamess, N., Anderson, J., Volek, J., Maresh, C. Testosterone Physiology In Resistance Exercise and Training: the Up-Stream Regulatory Elements. Sports Medicine. 2010. 40(12), 1037-1053.
References #4
Beaven, C., Cook, C., Gill, N. Significant Strength Gains Observed in Rugby Players After Specific Resistance Exercise Protocols Based on Individual Salivary Testosterone Responses. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22(2), 419-425.
Beaven, C., Gill, N., Cook, C. Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Responses Following Four Resistance Training Protocols in Professional Rugby Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22, 426-432.
References #5
Crewther, B., Cronin, J., Keogh, J., Cook, C. The Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Response to Three Loading Schemes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008. 22(1), 250-255.
Reference #6
Beaven, C., Gill, N., Ingram, J., Hopkins, W. Acute Salivary Hormone Responses to Complex Exercise Bouts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011. 25(4), 1072-1078.
Reference #7
Crewther, B., Cook, C., Lowe, T., Weatherby, R., Gill, N. The Effects of Short-Cycle Sprints on Power, Strength, and Salivary Hormones in Elite Rugby Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011. 25(1), 32-39.
References #8
Smith, G., Atherton, P., Reeds, D., Mohammed, G., Rankin, D., Rennie, M., Middendorfer, B. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women. Clinical Science. 2011. 121(6), 267-278.
Smith, G., Atherton, P., Reeds, D., Mohammed, B., Rankin, D., Rennie, M., Mittendorfer, B. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Increases the Rate of Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93(2), 402-412.
Neek, L., Gaeini, A., Choobineh, S. Effect of Zinc and Selenium Supplementation on Serum Testosterone and Plasma Lactate in Cyclist After an Exhaustive Exercise Bout. Biological Trace Element Research. 9 July 2011. Published Ahead of Print.
Chang, C., Choi, J., Kim, H., Park, S. Correlation Between Serum Testosterone Level and Concentrations of Copper and Zinc in Hair Tissue. Biological Trace Element Research. 14 June 2011. Published Ahead of Print.
References #9
Glynn, E., Fry, C., Drummond, M., Timmerman, K., Dhanani, S., Volpi, E., Rasmussen, B. Excess Leucine Intake Enhances Muscle Anabolic Signaling but Not Net Protein Anabolism in Young Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition. 2010. 140(11), 1970-1976.
Sharp, C., Pearson, D. Amino Acid Supplements and Recovery from High-Intensity Resistance Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010. 24(4), 1125-1130.

Reference #10
Ahtiainen, J., Hulmi, J., Kraemer, W., Lehti, M., Nyman, K., Selanne, H., Alen, M., et al. Heavy Resistance Exercise Training and Skeletal Muscle Androgen Receptor Expression in Younger and Older Men. Steroids. 2011. 76(1), 183-192.